Resources

Introduction to Biophotonics

This book provides an overview of biophotonics.

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Introduction to Biophotonics

"This is the introductory class for biophotonics with an overview of the UC Davis Center for Biophotonics Science and Technology. It is taught by Marco Molinaro, chief education officer for the center, and James Shackelford, director of the UC Davis Integrated Studies Program and a professor of chemical engineering and materials science."

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Definition of and General Introduction to Biophotonics

"Definition of and General Introduction to Biophotonics

Definition

Biophotonics is an emerging multidisciplinary research area, embracing all light-based
technologies applied to the life sciences and medicine. The expression itself is the
combination of the Greek syllables bios standing for life and phos standing for
light.
Photonics is the technical term for all methodologies and technologies utilizing
light over the whole spectrum from ultraviolet through the visible and the infrared to
the terahertz region, and its interaction with any matter (Figure 1.1).
Beyond this definition, biophotonics is a scientific discipline of remarkable societal
importance. For hundreds of years, researchers have utilized light-based systems to
explore the biological basics of life. After the invention of the light microscope dating
back to the seventeenth century and the systematic improvements introduced by Carl
Zeiss, Ernst Abbe and Otto Schott in Jena in the nineteenth century, it became an
essential tool in the life sciences and medicine and had a crucial influence on the
work of biologists of this time, such as Ernst Haeckel. Since then, its importance has
grown even stronger. Today, ultrahigh resolving microscopes enable us to observe
cellular structures smaller than 20 nm across and their functions, and thus to study
diseases right at their origin. We also benefit greatly from photonic technologies in
medical practice – in fact both in diagnosis and in therapy of diseases. For example,
laser scalpels have become routine tools which reduce the expense of many surgeries,
sometimes even down to an ambulant intervention (keyhole surgery). Due to novel
photonic technologies such as fluorescence endoscopy and photodynamic therapy
(PDT), some types of cancer can be recognized much earlier and treated more gently
than several years before. In ophthalmology, optical coherence tomography (OCT)
has become the gold standard for detecting morphological changes in the eye by
adding the third dimension, helping to obtain high-resolution 3D images of the
retina and diagnose prevalent diseases such as glaucoma and macular degeneration."

Handbook of Biophotonics. Vol.1: Basics and Techniques, First Edition.
Edited by Jurgen Popp, Valery V. Tuchin, Arthur Chiou, and Stefan H. Heinemann. 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. Published 2011 by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

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Oscillations of ultra-weak photon emission from cancer and non-cancer cells stressed by culture medium change and TNF-α

"Cells spontaneously emit photons in the UV to visible/near-infrared range (ultra-weak photon emission, UPE). Perturbations of the cells’ state cause changes in UPE (evoked UPE). The aim of the present study was to analyze the evoked UPE dynamics of cells caused by two types of cell perturbations (stressors): (i) a cell culture medium change, and (ii) application of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Four types of human cell lines were used (squamous cell carcinoma cells, A431; adenocarcinomic alveolar basal epithelial cells, A549; p53-deficient keratinocytes, HaCaT, and cervical cancer cells, HeLa). In addition to the medium change, TNF-α was applied at different concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 40 ng/mL) and UPE measurements were performed after incubation times of 0, 30, 60, 90 min, 2, 5, 12, 24, 48 h. It was observed that (i) the change of cell culture medium (without added TNF-α) induces a cell type-specific transient increase in UPE with the largest UPE increase observed in A549 cells, (ii) the addition of TNF-α induces a cell type-specific and dose-dependent change in UPE, and (iii) stressed cell cultures in general exhibit oscillatory UPE changes."

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Smartphone-based low light detection for bioluminescence application

"We report a smartphone-based device and associated imaging-processing algorithm to maximize the sensitivity of standard smartphone cameras, that can detect the presence of single-digit pW of radiant flux intensity. The proposed hardware and software, called bioluminescent-based analyte quantitation by smartphone (BAQS), provides an opportunity for onsite analysis and quantitation of luminescent signals from biological and non-biological sensing elements which emit photons in response to an analyte. A simple cradle that houses the smartphone, sample tube, and collection lens supports the measuring platform, while noise reduction by ensemble averaging simultaneously lowers the background and enhances the signal from emitted photons. Five different types of smartphones, both Android and iOS devices, were tested, and the top two candidates were used to evaluate luminescence from the bioluminescent reporter Pseudomonas fluorescens M3A. The best results were achieved by OnePlus One (android), which was able to detect luminescence from ~106 CFU/mL of the bio-reporter, which corresponds to ~107 photons/s with 180 seconds of integration time."

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Theranostics

"Theranostics publishes innovative research articles reflecting the fields of in vitro diagnostics and prognostics, in vivo molecular imaging, molecular therapeutics, image-guided therapy, biosensors, system biology and translational medicine, personalized medicine and a broad spectrum of biomedical research that can be applied to future theranostic applications."

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Biophotonic markers of malignancy: Discriminating cancers using wavelength-specific biophotons.

"Early detection is a critically important factor when successfully diagnosing and treating cancer. Whereas contemporary molecular techniques are capable of identifying biomarkers associated with cancer, surgical interventions are required to biopsy tissue. The common imaging alternative, positron-emission tomography (PET), involves the use of nuclear material which poses some risks. Novel, non-invasive techniques to assess the degree to which tissues express malignant properties are now needed. Recent developments in biophoton research have made it possible to discriminate cancerous cells from normal cells both in vitro and in vivo. The current study expands upon a growing body of literature where we classified and characterized malignant and non-malignant cell types according to their biophotonic activity. Using wavelength-exclusion filters, we demonstrate that ratios between infrared and ultraviolet photon emissions differentiate cancer and non-cancer cell types. Further, we identified photon sources associated with three filters (420-nm, 620-nm., and 950-nm) which classified cancer and non-cancer cell types. The temporal increases in biophoton emission within these wavelength bandwidths is shown to be coupled with intrisitic biomolecular events using Cosic's resonant recognition model. Together, the findings suggest that the use of wavelength-exclusion filters in biophotonic measurement can be employed to detect cancer in vitro."

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Spectrum of spontaneous photon emission as a promising biophysical indicator for breast cancer research

"In this study, we investigated the spectral characteristics of Spontaneous Photon Emission (SPE) from the body surface of a human breast cancer-bearing nude mice model during the overall growth process of breast cancers. By comparing and analyzing the data, we found that there was a striking difference between tumor mice and healthy controls in the spectral distribution of SPE from the body surface of lesion site, even when the morphological changes at the lesion site were not obvious. The spectral distribution of SPE from the healthy site of the tumor mice also differed from that of the healthy controls as the breast cancer developed to a certain stage. In addition, the difference in spectrum was related with different growth states of tumors. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between the spectral ratio (610–630/395–455 nm) and the logarithm of the tumor volume for both the lesion site (R2 = 0.947; p < 0.001) and the normal site (R2 = 0.892; p < 0.001) of the tumor mice. The results suggested that the spectrum of SPE was sensitive to changes in the tumor status."

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Clastogenic ROS and biophotonics in precancerous diagnosis

"Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. The application of biophotonics for diagnosing precancerous lesions is a major breakthrough in oncology and is associated with the expression of clastogenic bio-markers, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), namely, superoxide anion radicals, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radicals, and lipid peroxidation products. These ROS are the major sources of ultra-weak biophotons emission; in addition, biophotons are emitted from other biomolecules, which are not associated with ROS. The precancerous phase is diagnosed on the basis of biophoton emission from biomarkers. The type of biophotons emitted depends on the structure of the clastogenic ROS."

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Biophotonics: A Novel Approach Biomedical Diagnosis

Biophotonics is a multidisciplinary category under photonics, which involves the fusion of photonics and biomedical sciences.
Biophotonics defined as the science of generating and harnessing light (photons) to image, detect and manipulate biological materials. It is applied in Medicine and Dentistry to understand, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Biophotonics mainly involves the interaction between light with biological tissues, and is used to study biological tissues and biological processes at different scales that ranges from micro to nano-levels.
Biophotonics integrates Lasers, Photonics, Nanotechnology and Biotechnology.
This integrated approach provides new dimension for diagnostics and therapeutics. This rapidly growing new discipline will have a major impact on health care. "

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Photonic Communications and Information Encoding in Biological Systems

"The structure of optical radiation emitted by the samples of loach fish eggs is studied. It was found earlier that such radiation perform the communications between distant samples, which result in the synchronization of their development. The photon radiation in form of short quasi-periodic bursts was observed for fish and frog eggs, hence the communication mechanism can be similar to the exchange of binary encoded data in the computer nets via the noisy channels. The data analysis of fish egg radiation demonstrates that in this case the information encoding is similar to the digit to time analogue algorithm."

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Theranostics: A treasured tailor for tomorrow

"Emerging as a targeted, safe, and efficient pharmacotherapy is the approach of theranostics, which focuses on patient-centered care. It is a combination of diagnosis and therapeutics. It provides a transition from conventional medicine to personalized medicine. It deals with the custom made treatment plan based on uniqueness of every individual thus resulting in right drug for the right patient at the right time. Genetics plays a significant role in theranostics. Theranostics provides a cost-effective specific successful treatment protocol. Pharmacogenetics, proteomics and biomarker profiling forms the backbone of theranostics. The role of theranostics is interestingly appreciated at multi levels with special consideration in oncology wherein nano formulations in the form of liposomes, dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, metallic nanoparticles, quantum dots and carbon nanotubes play a very important role. Thus, theranostics is a holistic transition from trial and error medicine to predictive, preventive and personalized medicine leading to improved quality care of pharmacotherapy."

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Biophotons: Ultraweak Light Impulses Regulate Life Processes in Aging

"As shown by the history of light, photons participate in most atomic and molecular interactions. Recent biophysical research has measured low light impulses, so-called biophotonic emission, in cells and biological tissue. It is reported throughout the world that all cells (plant, animal or human) emit a weak, so-called biophotonic radiation. Based on the photoelectric effect, appropriate photomultiplier systems have been developed in order to detect this very weak light. Although the emission is extremely low in mammalian cells, it can be efficiently induced by light leading to delayed luminescence or light induced ultraweak photon re-emission. Re-emitted photons in cells are coupled with radical reactions and are probably also linked with the DNA as an important source. In recent years, cell culture models for biophotonic measurements using fibroblastic differentiation were generated and were used as an example to test the growth stimulation efficiency of various bone cell growth factors. It is well known that fibroblasts play an essential role in skin aging, skin carcinogenesis and wound healing. Therefore the biophotonic model of cells provides a new and powerful non-invasive tool for the development of new strategies in aging research"

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Biophotons: low signal/noise ratio reveals crucial events

"We study the emission of photons from germinating seeds. We make the assumption that the germination process is a spontaneous transition to criticality and we show that the statistical analysis of the photon emission leads to a deviation from the ordinary processes of statistical physics compatible with that assumption. The method of statistical analysis adopted has been used in the past to analyze the human brain dynamics and the music of Mozart. It is surprising that the germinating seeds share the same complexity as the human brain and the music of Mozart."

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s Cancer Detection Using Biophotonics

"Tissue visualization of patients with early malignant disease is still performed
by the naked eye and illumination with white light sources. Compared to
the sophisticated diagnostic methods available prior to surgical intervention,
this appears almost medieval. Fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy,
however, allows us access to entirely different optical information on tissue
constituents. Interpretation of relevant optical data will greatly enhance
tissue diagnostics.
Interest in the use of optical technologies to detect premalignant lesions
has grown in the recent years. Optical technologies offer the ability to
non-invasively diagnose and monitor precancers in-vivo with the use of
optical technology and fluorescent drugs that localize in cancers. For
many precancers and early cancers the current standard of care relies on
histopathological assessment of directed biopsies in order to obtain a final
diagnosis. Fluorescence diagnosis can be achieved in real time, using
automated techniques, without removing tissue for biopsies.. Fluorescence
imaging and spectroscopy is an emerging optical technology that offers
particular promise for the diagnosis of disease, in part because of a large
number of naturally occurring (endogenous) biological fluorescent substances
(fluorophores ) such as aromatic amino acids, reduced cofactors enzymes
as well as extra-cellular matrix such as collagen and elastin. Fluorescence
imaging and spectroscopy offer a means of assessing both the structural and
the biochemical progression using these novel technologies, clinical studies
have achieved promising results in multiple organs sites including bladder,
lung, oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract and the cervix. "

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Biophotonics Nature

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Kobayashi Laboratory

[Mechanism and characteristics of biophoton emisssion]


"A biophoton is a spontaneous photon emission, without any external photo-excitation, through chemical excitation of the internal biochemical processes underlying cellular metabolism. Usually, the mechanism of the biochemical reaction process is related to the oxidative metabolism, which accompanies the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Many cases of biophoton phenomena have been discussed with respect to radical reactions through ROS generation and ROS initiated cellular dysfunction. For instance, in the process of lipid peroxidation, excited species such as carbonyls and singlet-oxygen are generated during a radical chain reaction triggered by ROS (Russel mechanism). These excited species and/or other fluorescent molecules excited through energy transfer, are thought to lead to biophoton emission. In general, biophoton emission is distinguished from general bioluminescence phenomena such as that observed in firefly. The difference lies in the luminescent mechanism with photon yielding efficiency resulting in an intensity difference of over 103. Bioluminescence generally originates in enzymatic reactions such as the luciferin-luciferase system, whereas, biophoton emission is caused by various mechanisms and species accompanying inherent oxidative metabolism.
Recently oxidative stress through ROS generation has been generally recognized as being related to various diseases, which are derived from oxidative modification of cellular constituents such as lipid, protein, nucleic acid, and enzymes. Hence, biophoton emission might indicate pathological states. For example, it has been reported that UV irradiation on skin, administration of lipid peroxide or carcinogens, and other conditions of oxidative stress, induce an increase in biophoton intensity. Aging is also known to affect the enhancement of biophoton emission. It implies that biophoton emission is an indicator of imbalance between oxidation and antioxidative protection, which is illustrated as the excess production of ROS and/or decline in the activity of antioxidation. Detection of biophoton emission can provide real-time characteristics of various biological samples from individual organisms to the cellular and material levels as can metabolic products."

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A novel method of assessing carcinoma cell proliferation by biophoton emission.

"Changes in the emission intensities of ultraweak biophoton emission during the cell proliferation of human carcinoma cell culture (TE9 cell line) were detected using a highly sensitive and low noise measurement apparatus coupled with a flow culture system. In the sampling period of 93 h, the biophoton emission intensity from the culture followed a similar course as that of the growth curve. Spectral analysis of the biophoton emission from the cell culture demonstrated a significant peak at around 530 nm. Our results suggest that the emission intensity mainly depends on the cell population and that this noninvasive technique has a potential role in cancer diagnosis."

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Biophoton Detection and Low-Intensity Light Therapy: A Potential Clinical Partnership

"Low-intensity light therapy (LILT) is showing promise in the treatment of a wide variety of medical conditions. Concurrently, our knowledge of LILT mechanisms continues to expand. We are now aware of LILT's potential to induce cellular effects through, for example, accelerated ATP production and the mitigation of oxidative stress. In clinical use, however, it is often difficult to predict patient response to LILT. It appears that cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) state may play a central role in determining sensitivity to LILT and may help explain variability in patient responsiveness. In LILT, conditions associated with elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, e.g. diabetic hyperglycemia, demonstrate increased sensitivity to LILT. Consequently, assessment of tissue redox conditions in vivo may prove helpful in identifying responsive tissues. A noninvasive redox measure may be useful in advancing investigation in LILT and may one day be helpful in better identifying responsive patients. The detection of biophotons, the production of which is associated with cellular redox state and the generation of ROS, represents just such an opportunity. In this review, we will present the case for pursuing further investigation into the potential clinical partnership between biophoton detection and LILT."

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Highly Sensitive Detection and Spectral Analysis of Ultraweak Photon Emission from Living Samples of Human Origin for the Measurement of Biomedical Information.

"Ultraweak photon emission originating from living systems and organisms is generally calledbiophoton emission
and has known to occur naturally in conjunction with various vital processes of life. The aim of our study is
to develop new techniques for biomedical measurements and analyses based on highly sensitive detection and
characterization of biophoton emission from living samples of human origin. In this paper, we report the fundamental techniques and instrumentation developed newly for the measurement of ultraweak photon emission
intensityand its spectral distribution together with basic characteristics of ultraweak photon emission from blood
plasma, urine, sputum and breath samples taken from various subjects."

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Biophoton detection as a novel technique for cancer imaging

"Biophoton emission is defined as extremely weak light that is radiated from any living system due to its metabolic activities,
without excitation or enhancement. We measured biophoton images of tumors transplanted in mice with a highly sensitive and ultra-low noise CCD camera system. Cell lines employed for this study were AH109A, TE4 and TE9. Biophoton images of each tumor were measured 1 week after carcinoma cell transplantation to estimate the tumor size at week 1 and the biophoton intensity. Some were also measured at 2 and 3 weeks to compare the biophoton distribution with histological findings. We achieved sequential biophoton imaging during tumor growth for the first time. Comparison of microscopic findings and biophoton intensity suggested that the intensity of biophoton emission reflects the viability of the tumor tissue. The size at week 1 differed between cell lines, and the biophoton intensity of the tumor was correlated with the tumor size at week 1 (correlation coefficient 0.73).
This non-invasive and simple technique has the potential to be used as an optical biopsy to detect tumor viability. (Cancer Sci 2004; 95: 656–661)"

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In vivo imaging of spontaneous ultraweak photon emission from a rat’s brain correlated with cerebral energy metabolism and oxidative stress

"Living cells spontaneously emit ultraweak light during the process of metabolic reactions associated with the physiological state.
The first demonstration of two-dimensional in vivo imaging of ultraweak photon emission from a rat’s brain, using a highly sensitive photon counting apparatus, is reported in this paper.
It was found that the emission intensity correlates with the electroencephalographic activity that was measured on the cortical surface and this intensity is associated with the cerebral blood flow and hyperoxia.
To clarify the mechanism of photon emission, intensity changes from whole brain slices were examined under various conditions. The removal of glucose from the incubation medium suppressed the photon emission, and adding 50 mM potassium ions led to temporal enhancement of emission and subsequent depression. Rotenone (20 mM), an inhibitor of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, increased photon emission, indicating electron leakage from the respiratory chain. These results suggest that the photon emission from the brain slices originates from the energy metabolism of the inner mitochondrial respiratory chain through the production of reactive oxygen. Imaging of ultraweak photon emission from a brain constitutes a novel method, with the potential to extract pathophysiological information associated with neural metabolism and oxidative dysfunction of the neural cells."


© 1999 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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INABA Biophoton

"This project focused on the ultra-weak (《10-17 W: tens of photons per second) light that is emitted from, transmitted in, and absorbed by biological tissue and cells. These “biophotons” are quite different from known relatively intense bioluminescence emissions which are detectable by the human eye and for which specific substances are known to be responsible. The difference is in the fact that these biophotons originate completely from chemical activity within cells, and not as a response to external light, or other, stimulation."

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Biophotons: general aspects and new experimental data

"Almost one hundred years ago the Russian biologist A. Gurwitsch found that a weak ultra-violet radiation comes out from the living tissues and influences the mitotic activity of the neighboring organisms. He called this radiation “mitogenetic radiation”. However, this interesting result has been forgotten by the scientific community and the mitogenetic radiation was then considered as an artifact. With the improvement of the methods to detect weak level of radiation and the increase of understanding of quantum optics, there has been a renewed interest in this phenomenon with the works of Colli and Facchini in the 50s and F.A. Popp in the 80s."

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ARE DARK PHOTONS BEHIND BIOPHOTONS?

"TGD approach leads to a prediction that biophotons result when dark photons with large value of effective Planck constant and large wavelength transform to ordinary photons with same energy. The collaboration with Lian Sidorov stimulated a more detailed look for what biophotons are. Also the recent progress in understanding the implications of basic vision behind TGD inspired theory of consciousness erved as an additional motivation for a complementary treatment.

1. The anatomy of quantum jump in zero energy ontology (ZEO) allows to understand basic aspects of sensory and cognitive processing in brain without ever mentioning brain. Sensory perception - motor action cycle with motor action allowing interpretation as time reversed sensory perception reflects directly the fact that state function reductions occur alternately to the two opposite boundaries of causal diamond (which itself or rather, quantum superposition of CDs, changes in the process).

2. Also the abstraction and de-abstraction processes in various scales which are essential for the neural processing emerge already at the level of quantum jump. The formation of associations is one aspect of abstraction since it combines different manners to experience the same object. Negentropic entanglement of two or more mental images (CDs) gives rise to rules in which superposed n-particle states correspond to instances of the rule. Tensor product formation generating negentropic entanglement between new mental images and earlier ones generates longer sequences of memory mental images and gives rise to negentropy gain generating experience of understanding, recognition, something which has positive emotional coloring. Quantum superposition of perceptively equivalent zero energy states in given resolution gives rise to averaging. Increasing the abstraction level means poorer resolution so that the insignificant details are not perceived.

3. Various memory representations should be approximately invariant under the sequence of quantum jumps. Negentropic entanglement gives rise to this kind of stabilization. The assumption that self model is a negentropically entangled system which does not change in state function reduction, leads to a problem. If the conscious information about this kind of subself corresponds to change of negentropy in quantum jump, it seems impossible to get this information. Quite generally, if moment of consciousness corresponds to quantum jump and thus change, how it is possible to carry conscious information about quantum state? Interaction free measurement however allows to circumvent the problem: non-destructive reading of memories and future plans becomes possible in arbitrary good approximation.

This memory reading mechanism can be formulated for both photons and photons and these two reading mechanisms could correspond to visual memories as imagination and auditory memories as internal speech. Therefore dark photons decaying to biophotons could be crucial element of imagination and the notion bio-phonon could also make sense and even follow as a prediction. This would also suggest a correlation of biophoton emission with EEG for which there is a considerable evidence. The observation that biophotons seem to be associated only with the right hemisphere suggests that at least some parts of right hemisphere prefer dark photons and are thus specialized to visual imagination: spatial relationships are the speciality of the right hemisphere. Some parts the of left hemisphere at least might prefer dark photons in IR energy range transforming to ordinary phonons in ear or dark phonons: left hemisphere is indeed the verbal hemisphere specialized to linear linguistic cognition.

In the sequel I shall discuss biophotons in TGD Universe as decay products of dark photons and propose among other things an explanation for the hyperbolic decay law in terms of quantum coherence and echo like mechanism guaranteing replication of memory representations. Applications to biology, neuroscience, and consciousness are discussed and also the possible role of biophotons for remote mental interactions is considered. Also the phenomenon of taos hum is discussed as a possible evidence for biophonons."

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Recent Advances in Biophoton Research and Its Applications

"Biophoton emission now belongs to a topical field of modern science: It concerns a weak light emision from biological systems. Such molecular events are clearly compatible with collective phenomena as shown by recent developments in the life sciences such as the chaos theory. This book is concerned with the “optical window” of biological interactions and in view of their correlations to many biological functions they provide a powerful, non-invasive tool of analysing biological systems. Topics include food science, pollution, efficacy of drugs including the treatment of cancer..."

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Biophotons as neural communication signals demonstrated by in situ biophoton autography

"Cell to cell communication by biophotons has been demonstrated in plants, bacteria, animal neutrophil granulocytes and kidney cells. Whether such signal communication exists in neural cells is unclear. By developing a new biophoton detection method, called in situ biophoton autography (IBA), we have investigated biophotonic activities in rat spinal nerve roots in vitro. We found that different spectral light stimulation (infrared, red, yellow, blue, green and white) at one end of the spinal sensory or motor nerve roots resulted in a significant increase in the biophotonic activity at the other end. Such effects could be significantly inhibited by procaine (a regional anaesthetic for neural conduction block) or classic metabolic inhibitors, suggesting that light stimulation can generate biophotons that conduct along the neural fibers, probably as neural communication signals. The mechanism of biophotonic conduction along neural fibers may be mediated by protein–protein biophotonic interactions. This study may provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of neural communication, the functions of the nervous system, such as vision, learning and memory, as well as the mechanisms of human neurological diseases."

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Properties of biophotons and their theoretical implications

"The word "biophotons" is used to denote a pcrmanent spontancous photon ... interpretation, in order to understand the biological impacts of biophotons."

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A novel method of assessing carcinoma cell proliferation by biophoton emission

"Changes in the emission intensities of ultraweak biophoton emission during the cell proliferation of human carcinoma cellculture (TE9 cell line) were detected using a highly sensitive and low noise measurement apparatus coupled with a flowculture system. In the sampling period of 93 h, the biophoton emission intensity from the culture followed a similar course asthat of the growth curve. Spectral analysis of the biophoton emission from the cell culture demonstrated a significant peak ataround 530 nm. Our results suggest that the emission intensity mainly depends on the cell population and that this non-invasive technique has a potential role in cancer diagnosis."

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Imaging of ultraweak photon emission for evaluating the oxidative stress of human skin.

"Ultraweak photon emission (UPE) is generally observed in living organisms and often designated as biophoton emission. UPE is detectable from human skin, and its intensity increases by external stress such as ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Presently, UPE measurement is used to evaluate oxidation status. The fact that the electronically excited species responsible for UPE are formed by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced lipid peroxidation and protein and nucleic acid oxidation is well known. The human skin undergoes oxidative stress by UV irradiation, resulting in various skin complications; therefore, it is essential to know the oxidation status of the skin. In this study, we assessed the characteristics of UV-induced UPE in the skin by the imaging and spectroscopy systems. Two-dimensional images obtained by a highly sensitive imaging system using a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera revealed that UPE intensity increases with the amount of UV and is suppressed by antioxidants. Additionally, it is indicated that UPE is generated not only from the epidermis but also from the dermis. The spectra of UPE induced by UVA or UVB showed similar peaks in the visible light region. Furthermore, we confirmed the efficiency of sunscreen by the imaging technique. UPE measurement is a useful method to evaluate UV-induced oxidation in the human skin, and UPE imaging is an effective method to visually evaluate oxidative stress in the human skin."

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Bio-Photon Research and Its Applications: A Review

"This topic is aimed to lead the reader into an understanding of what biophotons are, how they are generated, and how they are involved in life. Having established this basis, the role of bio-photons in health and disease is reviewed and the basics of ultra-weak bio-photon emission need to be scientifically discussed in the hope that their importance will become more widely utilized"

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Ultra-weak Photon Emission From Living Systems

"The conference aims to promote research in ultra-weak photon emission through invited lectures and oral presentations of scientists from Europe, Asia and America. The focus will be given on mechanistic aspects and application of ultra-weak photon emission, and role of ultra-weak photon emission in biocommunication.!

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Biophotons - Expérience du Professeur Fritz A. Popp

"Années 80/90 - Biophotons - Expérience du Professeur Fritz A. Popp - Extrait du documentaire "Energie Vitale". Communication entre des organismes mono-cellulaires par la lumière (biophotons)."

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Dr. Fritz-Albert Popp | Biophotons | Institute Biophysics

"Dr. Popp is the founder of the International Institute of Biophysics in Neuss (1996), Germany, an international network of 19 research groups from 13 countries involved in biophoton research and coherence systems in biology.

A German physicist credited with the discovery of biophoton emissions -- tiny currents of light emanating from living things.
He is know for the discovery of Biophoton emissions.

Habilitation in Biophysics and Medicine (1973, University Marburg). Prof. Popp rediscovered and made the first extensive physical analysis of "Biophotons"."

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The Puzzling Role Of Biophotons In The Brain

"In recent years, a growing body of evidence shows that photons play an important role in the basic functioning of cells. Most of this evidence comes from turning the lights off and counting the number of photons that cells produce. It turns out, much to many people’s surprise, that many cells, perhaps even most, emit light as they work.


In fact, it looks very much as if many cells use light to communicate. There’s certainly evidence that bacteria, plants and even kidney cells communicate in this way. Various groups have even shown that rats brains are literally alight thanks to the photons produced by neurons as they work."

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Evidence of photon emission from DNA in living systems

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The Neurophysiology of Light The Five Pathways

"During the 19th century the American surgeon, Dr. E.
Babbitt, M.D., proved that treatment with colored light
could achieve very significant healing results through its
effect on the human energy field, the light receptive
autonomic nerve fibers in the skin and via the nerves that
connect the eye directly with the limbic system."

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Hamamatsu Photonics introduces a new micro PMT encapsulated in a plastic package ideal for downsizing medical diagnostic devices and environmental analyzers.

"Hamamatsu Photonics now offers a new micro PMT “R12900U” housing the world’s smallest photomultiplier tube in a miniature plastic package designed to easily mount on electronic circuit boards. Installing this new micro PMT to serve as a photodetector means environmental analyzers, portable medical diagnostic devices and so on can now be drastically downsized for convenient use anywhere needed including patient bedsides."

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Photon emission in multicellular organisms

"Ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) from biological systems was
first demonstrated, in the early 1960’s, by Russian researchers utilizing sensitive photomultiplier equipment. However, already in 1912 a proposal for a
morphogenetic radiation field, responsible for regulating biological form was
proposed. The main purpose of this chapter is to discuss experimental
research that studies the relationship between UPE and morphogenetic
aspects, either in development, or stress induced changes followed by recovery
processes. Within that context, different biological systems will be briefly
described. In plant research, the emphasis is on the relationship between
spontaneous UPE and development of seedlings. In the section on UPE
recordings in animals, we focus the description on the relation between UPE
and cancer development. In research using cell systems, the relationship
between UPE and cultured tumor cells, with different degree of differentiation
is discussed. This provides information on the coupling of UPE to biological
structure and the altered growth properties of tumor cells compared to normal
cells. In the last part of the chapter the focus is on studies in human biology,
in particular in relation to disease and (healthy) lifestyle. "

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Biophotons - Complete interview- Parts 1 & 2 combined- Fritz Albert Popp

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Analyzing Biophotonen and Diagnostic Regulations

"The Principal of Regulation Diagnosis

Illnesses always are disruptions of a superior system. Biophotonic around Fritz-Albert Popp has successfully researched this for years and understands its essential elements.
The first important practical use of medical biophotonics is a method of diagnostics which uses the following realization; An ideal order of an ideal healthy organism will lead to an ideal physiological value, which
will not deviate coincidentally from the distribution of frequency, i.e. skin resistance values. If more and more of the order is lost then the ability to measure the skin resistance will change accordingly. The break down of the regulations leads to the coincidental distribution of measurements. The regulation which is important for the understanding and therapy of the patient’s ailments can then be analyzed through
coincidental measurements of the skin resistance.
This principal of order, which was identified and published in 1950 without ever actually being used, makes this totally new and extraordinary medical way of diagnosis possible today."

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